--George Orwell (1903-1950), Animal Farm: A Fairy Story, Signet Classic/New American Library by arrangement with Harcourt Brace and Company Inc, New York,
Copyright © 1946 by Harcourt Brace & Co.;
As usual, the face of Emmanuel Goldstein, the Enemy of the People, had flashed onto the screen. There were hisses here and there among the audience. ... Goldstein was the renegade and backslider who once, long ago (how long ago, nobody quite remembered), had been one of the leading figures of the Party, almost on a level with Big Brother himself, and then had engaged in counterrevolutionary activities, had been condemned to death, and had mysteriously escaped and disappeared. ... He was the primal traitor, the earliest defiler of the Party's purity. All subsequent crimes against the Party, all treacheries, acts of sabotage, heresies, deviations, sprang directly out of his teaching.
--George Orwell (1903-1950), 1984, Signet Classics (New American Library), New York NY;
Copyright © 1949 by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Inc.;
This photo, earlier appearing in "Fourth International" (Nov 1940), was reproduced in Leon Trotsky, The Man and His Work: Remarks and Appraisals by [various authors],
New York, NY 10003
Published 7 Nov 1969; p. 34.
Revolutionary, political leader
Arrested for revolutionary activity and sent to Siberia 1898-1902?. Joined Social Democratic party. When party split in 1903, chose Mensheviks over Bolsheviks. Major organizer of 1905 revolution in S-Peterburg. After failure of revolution, went abroad (1907) to Vienna, Switzerland, and USA. Returned after "February Revolution" (1917), joined Bolsheviks in 1917 and played key role in Nov 1917 Bolshevik coup. Organized Red Army and was widely credited for its victory in civil war 1918-1921. Brilliant orator. Had trouble getting along with other members of ruling Politburo; after Lenin's death (1924), they all united against him. Expelled from Party 1927, expelled from USSR 1929. Abroad, wrote about Soviet history and politics, and tried, with marginal success, to organize a "Fourth International" of anti-Stalin Communists. Assassinated by NKVD 1940.
The exiled Trotsky fascinated some democratic Leftists in the West; anyone Stalin hated so much couldn't be all that bad. Even if Trotsky had an attractive writing style, however, he was just as much a Communist as Stalin. Some of his less informed Western admirers might be uncomfortable with the following:
Trotsky photographed with Nguyen Ai Quoc (the future Ho Chi Minh), 1924: