Insults and boilerplate

from allied Socialist nations

Copyright 1999 by Hugo S. Cunningham

first posted 990314
latest update 990913

Return to insults and ideologically precise terminology for the USSR.

These insults and ideologically distinctive terms were used by journalists and politicians of allied socialist countries. Additional historic entries (especially colorful ones) are welcome at

Entries are in English alphabetical order.

People's Republic of China

especially during the Cultural Revolution (1966- early 1970s)

Note: The Cyber-USSR would be grateful for the assistance of foreign linguists in translating some of these matchless phrases back into the original language, and for additional colorful phrases we were not aware of. (Or is there a better glossary we can open a link to?)

Many of these were retrieved from
Gao Yuan, Born Red: A Chronicle of the Cultural Revolution, Stanford University Press, Stanford CA, 1987. Paper, 380 pp.




bourgeois ideology


restoration of capitalism


great power chauvinism
policy of Khrushchev's USSR


Japanese devils
?exploiting classes
?Four Olds Old ideology, old culture, old customs, and old habits:
target of an early Cultural Revolution campaign
?Gang of Four Mao's widow Jiang Qing and three other radicals, forced out of power after Mao's death (ca 1976)
?hegemonistcommonly the USSR


imperialist wolves
commonly the USA



the Khrushchev of China

Khrushchev's phony Communism
Soviet ruler 1954-1964, whose "de-Stalinization" was denounced by Mao

Liu Shaoqi, forced out of office at beginning of Cultural Revolution (late 1960s)

?paper tigeroriginally referred to US nuclear deterrant in 1950s, as reproach for Khrushchev's supposed cowardice


Indian reactionaries

PRC relations with India remained distrustful after the 1962 border war.






royalist clown
phony cultural-revolutionist raising smoke-screens to protect revisionist relatives and allies

running dog

running dog of imperialism


worn shoe

loose woman



venomous snake

snake spirit

Other colorful phrases

?Away with all pests! a 1950s campaign to destroy flies, rodents and birds. Destruction of birds increased crop losses from insects.
?categorySee "Five Red Categories,"
"Seven Black Categories"
?class struggle

Cultural Revolution

Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
1966 to early 1970s
?A dragon begets dragons,
a phoenix begets phoenixes, and a mouse's children can only dig holes
Those born of politically-suspect parents cannot be trusted.
?Five Red Categories Five politically preferred class backgrounds:
worker, poor and lower-middle peasant, revolutionary soldier, revolutionary cadre, and revolutionary martyr
See also "Seven Black Categories"
?Great Leap Forward1958-1960
Mao's grand attempt to accelerate economic growth through radical social engineering and labor mobilization (eg "back-yard steel furnaces"). It caused the "Three Difficult Years."

hundred flowers

Let a hundred flowers bloom!
Let a hundred schools of thought contend!
Mao's call for liberalized speech in 1957. He soon took a dislike to the speech he heard, and silenced it with an "anti-Rightist campaign"
?"jet-plane" position uncomfortable crouching position, with arms forced back, imposed on suspects being interrogated by Red Guards
?Long live Chairman Mao!
?Long March 1934-1935 -- Fighting retreat of Communist forces under Mao's leadership to rural Shaanxi
?power seizure During Cultural Revolution, insurrectionary capture of factories and establishments from suspected revisionists
(2)hong (4)wei(1)bing Red Guard During Cultural Revolution, student rebel against revisionist authorities, sponsored by Mao
?Seven Black Categories Seven politically-suspect class backgrounds:
landlord, rich peasant, reactionary, bad element, rightist, traitor, and spy.
See also "Five Red Categories"
?Socialist Education Movement 1963 -- an attempt by Mao to root out bourgeois tendencies in lower Party cadres, frustrated by other Party officials
? Song of the Red Guards:
We are Chairman Mao's Red Guards,
Tempering ourselves in great waves and winds;
Armed with Mao Zedong thought,
We'll wipe out all pests and vermin.
?Three Difficult Years 1960-1962 -- economic hardship, including a huge famine (up to 30 million dead), blamed largely on Mao's "Great Leap Forward." More technocratic Party officials tried to ease Mao upstairs.

Some additional Cultural Revolution links

Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong "Cultural Bridge"s Artifacts from the Cultural Revolution
"Index of Web Resources on the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (GPCR)"

Return to insults and ideologically preferred language for the USSR.

Denounce an enemy of the people!